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Scaling Rust Adoption By way of Coaching

Scaling Rust Adoption By way of Coaching


Android 14 is the third main Android launch with Rust assist. We’re already seeing an a variety of benefits:

These optimistic early outcomes offered an attractive motivation to extend the pace and scope of Rust adoption. We hoped to perform this by investing closely in coaching to develop from the early adopters.

Early adopters are sometimes prepared to just accept extra danger to check out a brand new know-how. They know there shall be some inconveniences and a steep studying curve however are prepared to be taught, typically on their very own time.

Scaling up Rust adoption required shifting past early adopters. For that we have to guarantee a baseline degree of consolation and productiveness inside a set time period. An essential a part of our technique for carrying out this was coaching. Sadly, the kind of coaching we wished to offer merely didn’t exist. We made the choice to jot down and implement our personal Rust coaching.

Our targets for the coaching have been to:

  • Rapidly ramp up engineers: It’s exhausting to take folks away from their common work for an extended time period, so we aimed to offer a stable basis for utilizing Rust in days, not weeks. We couldn’t make anyone a Rust professional in so little time, however we might give folks the instruments and basis wanted to be productive whereas they continued to develop. The objective is to allow folks to make use of Rust to be productive members of their groups. The time constraints meant we couldn’t train folks programming from scratch; we additionally determined to not train macros or unsafe Rust intimately.
  • Make it partaking (and enjoyable!): We wished folks to see a number of Rust whereas additionally getting hands-on expertise. Given the scope and time constraints talked about above, the coaching was essentially information-dense. This referred to as for an interactive setting the place folks might shortly ask inquiries to the teacher. Analysis exhibits that retention improves when folks can shortly confirm assumptions and follow new ideas.
  • Make it related for Android: The Android-specific tooling for Rust was already documented, however we wished to point out engineers the best way to use it through labored examples. We additionally wished to doc rising requirements, corresponding to utilizing thiserror and anyhow crates for error dealing with. Lastly, as a result of Rust is a brand new language within the Android Platform (AOSP), we would have liked to point out the best way to interoperate with present languages corresponding to Java and C++.

With these three targets as a place to begin, we seemed on the present materials and obtainable instruments.

Present Materials

Documentation is a key worth of the Rust group and there are various nice assets obtainable for studying Rust. First, there may be the freely obtainable Rust Guide, which covers nearly the entire language. Second, the usual library is extensively documented.

As a result of we knew our target market, we might toughen assumptions than most materials discovered on-line. We created the course for engineers with a minimum of 2–3 years of coding expertise in both C, C++, or Java. This allowed us to maneuver shortly when explaining ideas acquainted to our viewers, corresponding to “management circulate”, “stack vs heap”, and “strategies”. Folks with different backgrounds can be taught Rust from the various different assets freely obtainable on-line.


Without spending a dime-form documentation, mdBook has turn out to be the de facto normal within the Rust group. It’s used for official documentation such because the Rust Guide and Rust Reference.

A very attention-grabbing characteristic is the flexibility to embed executable snippets of Rust code. That is key to creating the coaching partaking because the code could be edited stay and executed instantly within the slides:

Along with being a well-recognized group normal, mdBook gives the next essential options:

  • Maintainability: mdbook check compiles and executes each code snippet within the course. This allowed us to evolve the category over time whereas guaranteeing that we all the time confirmed legitimate code to the members.
  • Extensibility: mdBook has a plugin system which allowed us to increase the software as wanted. We relied on this characteristic for translations and ASCII artwork diagrams.

These options made it straightforward for us to decide on mdBook. Whereas mdBook just isn’t designed for shows, the output seemed OK on a projector once we restricted the vertical dimension of every web page.

Supporting Translations

Android has builders and OEM companions in lots of international locations. It’s vital that they will adapt present Rust code in AOSP to suit their wants. To assist translations, we developed mdbook-i18n-helpers. Help for multilingual documentation has been a group want since 2015 and we’re glad to see the plugins being adopted by a number of different tasks to provide maintainable multilingual documentation for everyone.

With the know-how and format nailed down, we began writing the course. We roughly adopted the define from the Rust Guide because it coated most of what we have to cowl. This gave us a 3 day course which we referred to as Rust Fundamentals. We designed it to run for 3 days for 5 hours a day and embody Rust syntax, semantics, and essential ideas corresponding to traits, generics, and error dealing with.

We then prolonged Rust Fundamentals with three deep dives:

  • Rust in Android: a half-day course on utilizing Rust for AOSP growth. It contains interoperability with C, C++, and Java.
  • Naked-metal Rust: a full-day class on utilizing Rust for bare-metal growth. Android gadgets ship vital quantities of firmware. These elements are sometimes foundational in nature (for instance, the bootloader, which establishes the belief for the remainder of the system), thus they have to be safe.
  • Concurrency in Rust: a full-day class on concurrency in Rust. We cowl each multithreading with blocking synchronization primitives (corresponding to mutexes) and async/await concurrency (cooperative multitasking utilizing futures).

A big set of in-house and group translators have helped translate the course into a number of languages. The complete translations have been Brazilian Portuguese and Korean. We’re engaged on Simplified Chinese language and Conventional Chinese language translations as effectively.

Course Reception

We began educating the category in late 2022. In 2023, we employed a vendor, Immunant, to show nearly all of courses for Android engineers. This was essential for scalability and for high quality: devoted instructors quickly found the place the course members struggled and will adapt the supply. As well as, over 30 Googlers have taught the course worldwide.

Greater than 500 Google engineers have taken the category. Suggestions has been very optimistic: 96% of members agreed it was price their time. Folks constantly instructed us that they liked the interactive model, highlighting the way it helped to have the ability to ask clarifying questions at any time. Instructors famous that individuals gave the course their undivided consideration as soon as they realized it was stay. Dwell-coding calls for so much from the teacher, however it’s price it because of the excessive engagement it achieves.

Most significantly, folks exited this course and have been capable of be instantly productive with Rust of their day jobs. When members have been requested three months later, they confirmed that they have been capable of write and evaluate Rust code. This matched the outcomes from the a lot bigger survey we made in 2022.

We have now been educating Rust courses at Google for a yr now. There are some things that we need to enhance: higher matter ordering, extra workouts, and extra speaker notes. We’d additionally like to increase the course with extra deep dives. Pull requests are very welcome!

The complete course is accessible free of charge at https://google.github.io/comprehensive-rust/. We’re thrilled to see folks beginning to use Complete Rust for courses around the globe. We hope it may be a helpful useful resource for the Rust group and that it’s going to assist each small and huge groups get began on their Rust journey!

We’re grateful to the 190+ contributors from all around the world who created greater than 1,000 pull requests and points on GitHub. Their bug experiences, fixes, and suggestions improved the course in numerous methods. This contains the 50+ individuals who labored exhausting on writing and sustaining the various translations.

Particular due to Andrew Walbran for writing Naked-metal Rust and to Razieh Behjati, Dustin Mitchell, and Alexandre Senges for writing Concurrency in Rust.

We additionally owe quite a lot of due to the various volunteer instructors at Google who’ve been spending their time educating courses across the globe. Your suggestions has helped form the course.

Lastly, due to Jeffrey Vander Stoep, Ivan Lozano, Matthew Maurer, Dmytro Hrybenko, and Lars Bergstrom for offering suggestions on this put up.



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